Room of Soviet Advisors

For a long time after 1945, Soviet advisors operating alongside Hungarian political, social and economic leaders endeavoured to force their own methods and lifestyle on to Hungarian society. Documentaries and newsreel clips shown on the monitors in the hall evoke the Soviet presence.

In Hungary, the backcountry of the Red Army, Soviet advisors began to appear almost immediately in 1944. The majority of these were political officers or military intelligence experts. Their responsibility was to establish a Hungarian administrative system which would cooperate with the Soviet occupation authorities. No party or social organization could receive a permit to organize or function, to produce press materials or to hold rallies without their permission.  These advisors also determined the number of Hungarians and the German minority who would be forcefully sent to the Soviet Union.

After the Nazis were driven out and the Soviets took power, the direction of Hungarian political and economic life was placed under the Allied Control Committee. First Marshal Vorosilov and then Lieutenant-General Sviridov led this body.  When this committee was finally disbanded, the Soviet Ambassadors of the time became the ˝Hungarian governors˝ for the Kremlin. Ambassadors Puskin, Tyiskov, Kiszeljov and Andropov were all high-ranking members of the Soviet political police, too.

The Soviet advisors developed an extensive record system on all communist leaders, opposition politicians, intellectuals and prominent personalities in Hungarian public life.  For these advisors, even Rákosi, Moscow´s unconditional servant, was not reliable enough.

In important investigative and analysis work, Soviet advisors assisted or oversaw the political police, which later became known as the State Security Department (ÁVO) and later the State Security Authority (ÁVH). These advisors also largely controled the Political Military Department (KATPOL) and the Economic Police (GRO). With the efficient cooperation of the Soviet interior ministry experts, they carried out arrests and organized political trials according to the Soviet model. 

General Belkin, who led the political police in Central Europe from Baden bei Wien, frequently visited Budapest to personally observe that the advisors were working effectively.

The ministries and justice organizations could rely on the work of the Soviet Advisors, as well. The Soviet experts were important decision makers in Hungarian economic life for a long time, directing uranium mining, air transportation as well as the defense and oil industries. They supervised certain strategic branches of trade and economy and they remodeled the Hungarian army according to the Soviet model.

The Soviet teachers, engineers, doctors, agriculture engineers and miners arriving in Hungary did not only share their experiences about the ˝advanced˝ Soviet industry and agriculture with their Hungarian colleagues, but they also tried to make the Hungarian people accept their foreign way of life and view of the world.   The Soviet Embassy in Budapest and the Soviet political police also supervised the growing Soviet colony in Hungary. In the Hungarian countryside, the occupying Soviet troops became a part of everyday life, enmeshing the countryside with their garrisons.

In 1956, in collaboration with Ambassador Andropov, Soviet advisors prepared the way for the Soviet invasion to supress Hungary´s revolution.  The tanks that rolled into Budapest during the revolution, carried János Kádár and a few members of his government to the Hungarian parliament building. Among them were two of Kádár´s personal advisors, Bajkov and Kupscenko. These two advisors were members of Kádár´s close circle until spring 1957, and never left Kádár unsupervised, even during the night, when they slept in the next room.  They even translated for him when Kádár spoke to Khrushchev on the phone. In the fall of 1956, three high ranking Soviet leaders, Malenkov, Suslov and Aristov, came to surpervise the first steps of the Kádár government and to direct the retaliations from behind the scenes.  
The last Soviet advisors left Hungary in 1989.

Second floor